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弹簧介绍之影响弹簧疲乏强度的几个要素
文章来源:http://www.sdzbthc.com/ 发布时间:2021-08-18 浏览次数:
      1.屈服强度材料的屈服强度和疲乏极限之间有一定的联系,一般来说,材料的屈服强度越高,疲乏强度也越高,因此,为了前进弹簧的疲乏强度应设法前进弹簧材料的屈服强度,或采用屈服强度和抗拉强度比值高的材料。对同一材料来说,细晶粒安排比粗细晶粒安排具有更高的屈服强度。
  
  1. Yield strength there is a certain relationship between the yield strength and fatigue limit of the material. Generally speaking, the higher the yield strength of the material, the higher the fatigue strength. Therefore, in order to advance the fatigue strength of the spring, try to advance the yield strength of the spring material, or use the material with high ratio of yield strength to tensile strength. For the same material, the fine grain arrangement has higher yield strength than the coarse and fine grain arrangement.
  
  2.表面状况大应力多发作在弹簧材料的表层,所以弹簧的表面质量对疲乏强度的影响很大。弹簧材料在轧制、拉拔和卷制过程中形成的裂纹、疵点和伤痕等缺陷往往是形成弹簧疲乏开裂的原因。
  
  2. The surface condition is large, and the stress mostly occurs on the surface of the spring material, so the surface quality of the spring has a great impact on the fatigue strength. The fatigue cracking of spring materials is often caused by cracks, defects and scars formed in the process of rolling, drawing and rolling.
  

 
  
  材料表面粗糙度愈小,应力会集愈小,疲乏强度也愈高。材料表面粗糙度对疲乏极限的影响。随着表面粗糙度的添加,疲乏极限下降。在同一粗糙度的情况下,不同的钢种及不同的卷制方法其疲乏极限下降程度也不同,如冷卷弹簧下降程度就比热卷弹簧小。由于钢制热卷弹簧及其热处理加热时,由于氧化使弹簧材料表面变粗糙和发作脱碳现象,这样就下降了弹簧的疲乏强度。
  
  The smaller the surface roughness of the material, the smaller the stress concentration and the higher the fatigue strength. Effect of material surface roughness on fatigue limit. With the increase of surface roughness, the fatigue limit decreases. Under the same roughness, the decrease degree of fatigue limit is also different for different steel grades and different rolling methods. For example, the decrease degree of cold coil spring is smaller than that of hot coil spring. When the steel hot coil spring and its heat treatment are heated, the surface of the spring material becomes rough and decarburized due to oxidation, which reduces the fatigue strength of the spring.
  
  对材料表面进行磨削、强压、抛丸和滚压等。都能够前进弹簧的疲乏强度。
  
  Carry out grinding, forced pressing, shot blasting and rolling on the material surface. Can advance the fatigue strength of the spring.
  
  3.标准效应材料的标准愈大,由于各种冷加工和热加工工艺所形成的缺陷可能性愈高,发作表面缺陷的可能性也越大,这些原因都会导致疲乏功能下降。因此在核算弹簧的疲乏强度时要考虑标准效应的影响。
  
  3. The greater the standard of standard effect materials, the higher the possibility of defects formed by various cold and hot working processes, and the greater the possibility of surface defects. These reasons will lead to the decline of fatigue function. Therefore, the influence of standard effect should be considered when calculating the fatigue strength of spring.
  
  4.冶金缺陷冶金缺陷是指材料中的非金属夹杂物、气泡、元素的偏析,等等。存在于表面的夹杂物是应力会集源,会导致夹杂物与基体界面之间过早地发作疲乏裂纹。采用真空冶炼、真空浇注等办法,能够大大前进钢材的质量。
  
  4. Metallurgical defects metallurgical defects refer to non-metallic inclusions, bubbles, element segregation, etc. in materials. The inclusion on the surface is the source of stress concentration, which will lead to fatigue cracks between the inclusion and the matrix interface. The quality of steel can be greatly improved by means of vacuum smelting and vacuum pouring.
  
  5.腐蚀介质弹簧在腐蚀介质中作业时,由于表面发作点蚀或表面晶界被腐蚀而成为疲乏源,在变应力作用下就会逐步扩展而导致开裂。例如在淡水中作业的弹簧钢,疲乏极限仅为空气中的10%~25%。腐蚀对弹簧疲乏强度的影响,不只与弹簧受变载荷的作用次数有关,并且与作业寿数有关。所以规划核算受腐蚀影响的弹簧时,应将作业寿数考虑进去。
  
  5. When the corrosion medium spring works in the corrosion medium, it becomes a fatigue source due to pitting corrosion on the surface or corrosion of the surface grain boundary, which will gradually expand under the action of variable stress and lead to cracking. For example, the fatigue limit of spring steel working in fresh water is only 10% ~ 25% of that in air. The effect of corrosion on spring fatigue strength is not only related to the number of times the spring is subjected to variable load, but also related to the service life. Therefore, the working life should be taken into account when planning and accounting the spring affected by corrosion.