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碟形弹簧的失效与哪些生产技术有关?
文章来源:http://www.sdzbthc.com/ 发布时间:2021-11-24 浏览次数:
加工产生裂纹。碟形弹簧由热锻加工成型,淬火+高温回火调质处理,喷丸强化处理表面,整个加工过程中会出现碟簧内部微裂纹,造成应力集中,在使用过程中若负载过大会加速碟簧疲劳失效甚至开裂。
Cracks occur during machining. The disc spring is formed by hot forging, quenching + high temperature tempering and tempering treatment, and shot peening to strengthen the surface. During the whole processing process, there will be internal microcracks of the disc spring, resulting in stress concentration. If the load is too large during use, the fatigue failure or even cracking of the disc spring will be accelerated.
热处理不合理。碟簧热处理时,调质处理,由于回火温度与回火后的冷却速度不当或出现偏差(譬如回火后的冷却速度过于缓慢),产生高温回火脆性;热处理表面出现脱碳现象,对碟簧的疲劳寿命产生不良影响,使碟簧的弹性极限和疲劳寿命恶化,有利于促成裂纹的形成。
Unreasonable heat treatment. During the heat treatment of disc spring, due to improper tempering temperature or deviation from the cooling speed after tempering (for example, the cooling speed after tempering is too slow), high temperature tempering brittleness occurs; Decarburization on the heat treated surface has an adverse impact on the fatigue life of the disc spring, worsens the elastic limit and fatigue life of the disc spring, and is conducive to the formation of cracks.
由于材料成分不合理,成分偏析导致碟簧性能不均匀,例如,60Si2Mn作为碟簧材料时,含Si量偏低,降低碟簧屈服强度,导致零件提前发生脆变,甚至开裂;含P量偏高,则加剧钢的脆性倾向和成分偏析;而杂物的存在则分割了基体的连续性,成为裂纹敏感的区域,特别当分布于零件表面时,容易造成压力集中,为应力腐蚀开裂优先选择了通道。
山东弹簧厂
Due to unreasonable material composition and composition segregation, the performance of disc spring is uneven. For example, when 60Si2Mn is used as disc spring material, the Si content is low, which reduces the yield strength of disc spring, resulting in brittle deformation and even cracking of parts in advance; If the content of P is too high, the brittleness tendency and composition segregation of steel will be aggravated; The existence of sundries divides the continuity of the matrix and becomes a crack sensitive area. Especially when distributed on the surface of parts, it is easy to cause pressure concentration, which gives priority to the channel for stress corrosion cracking.
长时间使用产生材料脆化。材料长时间使用,碟簧内部组织达到甚至超出其力学性能极限,造成脆化出现,过早产生疲劳失效。
Material embrittlement occurs when used for a long time. When the material is used for a long time, the internal structure of the disc spring reaches or even exceeds its mechanical property limit, resulting in embrittlement and premature fatigue failure.
应力腐蚀。碟簧工作时承受拉应力,当碟簧卸除载荷,其内部依然保持着残余拉应力,若碟簧长期工作在酸性液体或湿度较大环境,在拉应力作用下,溶液中的氢发生聚集,吸附在表面的空穴、腐蚀坑等缺陷处,使表面能或原子健的结合力降低,局部应力集中加剧,当裂纹的形核功大于裂纹尖端应力强度因子时,从而导致环境脆断微裂纹的形核和扩展,出现微裂纹,导致碟簧过早疲劳失效。
Stress corrosion. When the disc spring works, it bears the tensile stress. When the disc spring removes the load, it still maintains the residual tensile stress. If the disc spring works in an acidic liquid or high humidity environment for a long time, under the action of tensile stress, the hydrogen in the solution accumulates and adsorbs on the holes, corrosion pits and other defects on the surface, reducing the binding force of surface energy or atomic bond and aggravating the local stress concentration, When the nucleation work of the crack is greater than the stress intensity factor at the crack tip, it will lead to the nucleation and propagation of environmental brittle fracture microcracks, microcracks and premature fatigue failure of disc springs.
使用环境使碟簧产生进一步的脆化。碟簧长期工作在高温或低温的环境下,其组织缓慢发生变化,出现进一步脆化。
The service environment causes further embrittlement of the disc spring. When the disc spring works at high or low temperature for a long time, its structure changes slowly and further embrittlement occurs.