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怎么去设计计算一个合理的拉伸弹簧?
文章来源:http://www.sdzbthc.com/ 发布时间:2021-12-21 浏览次数:
拉伸弹簧的拉力、变形和强度计算与压缩弹簧基本相同,两者只是受力、变形和应力的方向相反。因此,压缩弹簧的基本计算公式同样可以应用于拉伸弹簧。
The calculation of tension, deformation and strength of tension spring is basically the same as that of compression spring, but the directions of force, deformation and stress are opposite. Therefore, the basic calculation formula of compression spring can also be applied to tension spring.
密圈螺旋拉伸弹簧在冷卷时形成的内力,其值为弹簧开始产生拉伸变形时所需要加的作用力,为拉伸弹簧的初拉力。初拉力与材料的种类、性能、直径和弹簧的旋绕比、耳环的型式、长短以及弹簧的加工方法都有直接的关系,用冷拔成形并经过强化处理的钢丝且经冷卷成形后的拉伸密圈弹簧,都有一定的初拉力。不锈弹簧钢丝与碳素弹簧钢丝制成的弹簧比较,初拉力要小12%左右,弹簧消应力回火处理的温度越高,初拉力越小;制成弹簧需要经热处理淬火的拉伸弹簧就投有初拉力.
The internal force formed by the dense coil spiral tension spring during cold rolling is the force required when the spring begins to produce tensile deformation, which is the initial tension of the tension spring. The initial tension is directly related to the type, performance, diameter of the material, the winding ratio of the spring, the type and length of the earring and the processing method of the spring. The tension dense coil spring formed by cold drawn and strengthened steel wire and cold rolled has a certain initial tension. Compared with the spring made of stainless spring steel wire and carbon spring steel wire, the initial tension is about 12% smaller. The higher the temperature of spring stress relief tempering treatment, the smaller the initial tension is; The tension spring, which needs heat treatment and quenching, has initial tension
螺旋的线圈做成的圆柱形弹簧,工作线圈之间为恒定间隙,可以吸收外部轴向力。线径约为16mm的弹簧线圈为冷成型。热成型弹簧一定是用于线径大于10mm的高负载产品上。拉伸弹簧通常为圆线或圆棒做成。方形线圈很少用。
The cylindrical spring made of spiral coil has a constant gap between working coils and can absorb external axial force. The spring coil with a wire diameter of about 16mm is cold formed. Hot formed spring must be used for high load products with wire diameter greater than 10mm. Tension springs are usually made of round wires or rods. Square coils are rarely used.
拉伸弹簧
考虑到固定挂钩形状和设计对弹簧工作寿命减少和无法做到完美的喷丸效果。不推荐使用拉伸弹簧于疲劳负载弹簧上。如果必须使用拉伸弹簧于疲劳负载,建议避免使用固定挂钩而选择其他的弹簧固定方式。
Considering that the shape and design of the fixed hook can reduce the working life of the spring and can not achieve perfect shot peening effect. Tension springs are not recommended for fatigue loaded springs. If the tension spring must be used for fatigue load, it is recommended to avoid the use of fixed hook and choose other spring fixing methods.
拉伸弹簧用于两种基本设计:
Tension springs are used in two basic designs:
1) 预压弹簧
1) Preload spring
冷成型拉伸弹簧适合预应力加工,因此工作线圈封闭。预压弹簧可以增加弹簧的负载容量。对于指定长度弹簧变形,必须使用无预压的更高负载。预压产生于弹簧线圈的卷绕过程中。尺寸大小依据使用的材料,弹簧指数和卷绕方式。
The cold-formed tension spring is suitable for prestressed processing, so the working coil is closed. Preloading the spring can increase the load capacity of the spring. For spring deformation of a specified length, a higher load without preload must be used. Preloading occurs during the winding of the spring coil. The size depends on the material used, spring index and winding mode.
2) 无内部预压弹簧
2) No internal preload spring
由于技术原因如果没有必要,可以使用松的线圈弹簧,没有预压 ,工作线圈之间有间隙。自由状态下的线圈间距通常为 0.2*D < p < 0.4*D。
For technical reasons, if it is not necessary, a loose coil spring can be used without preloading, and there is a gap between the working coils. The coil spacing in the free state is usually 0.2 * d < p < 0.4 * D.
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